Max Bergmann papers, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research Scientific Staff (FA001) 1886-1961 (bulk 1941-1945)

7.31 cubic feet (19 boxes)

World War II Chemical warfare Biochemistry Japan

Other Finding Aids

An item-level inventory of Series 6 Lantern Slides is available here:

Arrangement

The collection is arranged in six series: 1) Personal, 2) Laboratory Administration, 3) Research, 4) Publications, 5) Declassified Reports and 6) Lantern Slides. See the individual series descriptions for more details on the contents. of each series.

Processing Information

The collection was reviewed by archivist Francis Butkus of the National Archives in 1985. The majority of the collection was then declassified. During archival processing, the remaining classified documents were separated into Box 15 and have since been declassified as of December 28, 2011. Use the stamped declassified copies in Box 15 for access to these materials. Max Bergmann’s physical examination records are closed in accordance with HIPAA regulations.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Received from the Rockefeller University in 1981.

Conditions Governing Use

Copyright restrictions may apply. All requests for reproduction and use of material require additional forms to be submitted for approval by the Rockefeller Archive Center.

Appraisal

Duplicate reports and circulars were discarded. Also, in cases where preservation photocopies were necessary due to the poor condition of the original document, the original document was discarded.

Related Archival Materials

The American Philosophical Society (APS) Library has additional papers of Max Bergmann. A copy of the collection description and inventory for the records housed at the APS Library can be found in Series 1, Folder 1. An abstract of the collection is also available on the APS Library website at: http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/b.htm#Bergmann.

Biographical / Historical

Max Bergmann was a German biochemist. He was born in Furth, Bavaria on February 12, 1886. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Berlin in 1911, he worked closely as an assistant to Hermann Emil Fischer from 1911 to 1919. Together, they laid the foundation for scientific knowledge of proteins, carbohydrates, and tannins. Following the suicide of Fischer, Bergmann accepted a position as Vice–Director and Head of the Department of Organic Chemistry at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fiber Chemistry in Berlin. In 1921, he moved on to serve as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Leather Research until 1933. When the conditions in Germany grew too hostile, he emigrated to the United States and became an Associate Member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research where he continued as a pioneer of applied sciences focused on proteins and protein–splitting enzymes, as well as the chemistry of carbohydrates and fats. In 1937, he became a full member of the Institute. He died at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York on November 7, 1944. At the time of his death, he was working under contract with the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development to benefit the national defense during World War II. This research focused on the synthetic, analytical, and inorganic problems in chemical warfare and B–4 toxicity, especially mustard gases.

1886
Born February 12, 1886 in Furth, Bavaria.
1907
B.S. from the University of Munich.
1911
Ph.D. from the University of Berlin.
1911–1919
Assistant to Emil Fischer at the University of Berlin.
1915
Son Peter G. Bergmann is born.
1917
Daughter Esther M. Bergmann is born.
1919–1921
Vice–Director and Head of the Department of Organic Chemistry at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fiber Chemistry in Berlin.
1921–1933
Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Leather Research and Honorary Professor for Leather Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Technical Hochschule in Dresden.
1928–1933
Elected President of the International Society of Leather Chemists
1934–1937
Associate Member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
1937–1944
Full Member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
1940
Becomes a naturalized U.S. citizen May 18, 1940.
1944
Dies November 7, 1944 at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

Scope and Contents

This collection primarily documents the laboratory research and administration of biochemist Dr. Max Bergmann during his tenure at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, now the Rockefeller University, from 1934 until his death in 1944. The records are particularly focused on the research he conducted in the 1940s on problems of interest to the U.S. Armed Forces, namely the synthetic, analytical, and inorganic problems in chemical warfare and B–4 toxicity, especially mustard gases. Records consist mostly of laboratory research notes, notes on related scientific literature, research progress reports, correspondence with colleagues and administrative officials, administrative circulars and memoranda, reprints of Bergmann publications, and receipts of classified reports and scientific samples. Research topics of interest include World War II chemical warfare research, Selective Service deferments for scientists, policies and procedures of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and the National Defense Research Committee, and the “brain drain” or significant emigration of scientists and technologists to the United States from Europe as a result of hostile conditions prior to World War II. The collection also contains a minimal amount of biographical material, including Bergmann’s personal correspondence, documents relating to Bergmann’s funeral, and photographs.

File Plan

Former Classification: I 450 B454

Preferred Citation

Information regarding the Rockefeller Archive Center’s preferred elements and forms of citation can be found at http://www.rockarch.org/research/citations.php

Conditions Governing Access

Collection is open for scholarly research with select materials restricated, as noted.

Contents

Personal, 1886–1961 (bulk 1933–1946)
American Philosophical Society Library: Max Bergmann Papers, undated

Box 1, Folder 1

Diaries, See logbooks
Bergmann, Martha, 1944–1961

Box 1, Folder 2

Biographical Synopses, 1944, 1946

Box 1, Folder 3

Correspondence, 1933–1944

Box 1, Folder 4

Box 1, Folder 5

Funeral Service, 1944–1945

Box 1, Folder 6

Naturalization Documents, 1886–1945

Box 1, Folder 7

Photographs, [192?]–1944

Box 1, Folder 8

Physical Examinations, 1924?, 1934?

Box 1, Folder 9

Scientific Periodicals and Books from the Library of Dr. Max Bergmann, 1944

Box 1, Folder 10

Laboratory Administration, 1934–1946 (bulk 1941–1944)
A, 1940–1944

Box 1, Folder 11

Account “K” NDRC, 1942–1945

Box 1, Folder 12

B, 1942–1945

Box 1, Folder 13

Bergmann Appointments: Consultant Official Investigators, 1941–1943

Box 1, Folder 14

Bergmann, Max Dr., 1940–1944

Box 1, Folder 15

Bowman, Robert A., 1941–1943

Box 1, Folder 16

Bush, Vannevar, 1940–1944

Box 1, Folder 17

C, 1934–1946

Box 2, Folder 1

Cannan, R. K., 1942–1944

Box 2, Folder 2

Chadwell, Harris M., 1942

Box 2, Folder 3

Campbell, Mrs. Marcia D., 1943

Box 2, Folder 4

Cohen, Barbett, 1942–1944

Box 2, Folder 5

Conner, Ralph A., 1942

Box 2, Folder 6

Contract No. OEMsr–313, 1942–1945

Box 2, Folder 7

Contract Symbol 881, 1942

Box 2, Folder 8

Cope, Arthur C., 1942–1944

Box 2, Folder 9

Cori, Carl F., 1942–1944

Box 2, Folder 10

D, 1940–1945

Box 2, Folder 11

DB 3 Reagent: Directions for use of, 1942–1943

Box 2, Folder 12

Deferments Log, 1944–1945

Box 2, Folder 13

Directions, 1934, 1943

Box 2, Folder 14

Discussion Log, 1943

Box 2, Folder 15

Du Vigneaud, Vincent, 1942–1944

Box 2, Folder 16

E, 1942–1944

Box 2, Folder 17

Espionage Act, 1940–1945

Box 2, Folder 18

F, 1941–1944

Box 2, Folder 19

Failey, Crawford F., 1942–1944

Box 2, Folder 20

Friedenwald, Jonas S., 1942–1944

Box 2, Folder 21

Fruton, Joseph S., 1942–1946

Box 3, Folder 1

G, 1940–1945

Box 3, Folder 2

Gasser, H. S., 1941–1944

Box 3, Folder 3

Golumbic, Calvin, 1941–1945

Box 3, Folder 4

H, 1941–1944

Box 3, Folder 5

I, 1941–1945

Box 3, Folder 6

Indexes to Reports, 1944

Box 3, Folder 7

J, 1942–1944

Box 3, Folder 8

K, 1942–1944

Box 3, Folder 9

KB 16: Correspondence, 1942

Box 3, Folder 10

Kelley, Dr. Louise, 1942–1945

Box 3, Folder 11

L, 1942–1944

Box 3, Folder 12

Literature I, 1943–1945

Box 3, Folder 13

Literature II: A. G. Ogston and R. A. Peters, 1940–1943

Box 3, Folder 14

Literature III: E thru L, 1942–1944

Box 3, Folder 15

Literature IV: Miscellaneous, 1942–1943

Box 3, Folder 16

Literature V: A thru D, 1942–1944

Box 3, Folder 17

Literature VI: M thru P, 1942–1944

Box 3, Folder 18

Literature VII: Michael Heidelberger, 1943

Box 3, Folder 19

Literature VIII: Edgewood Arsenal, 1943–1944

Box 3, Folder 20

Literature IX: Howe Laboratory, 1942–1944

Box 4, Folder 1

Literature X: Salter, William T., 1942–1944

Box 4, Folder 2

Literature XI: Skipper, H. E., 1943

Box 4, Folder 3

Literature XII: Porton Reports, 1942–1944

Box 4, Folder 4

Literature XIII: Q thru Z, 1941–1944

Box 4, Folder 5

Literature XIV: Wilmer Institute, 1942–1943

Box 4, Folder 6

M, 1941–1944

Box 4, Folder 7

Mail, 1941–1944

Box 4, Folder 8

Material Received, 1942

Box 4, Folder 9

McClean, Franklin C., 1942–1944

Box 4, Folder 10

McMaster, Philip D., 1942–1944

Box 4, Folder 11

Me, 1942–1944

Box 4, Folder 12

Meetings
Invitations, 1941–1944

Box 4, Folder 13

Minutes and Notes, 1942–1944

Box 4, Folder 14

Moore, Stanford , undated, 1942–1946

Box 4, Folder 15

Box 5, Folder 1

N, 1941–1946

Box 5, Folder 2

Nagy, Stephen, 1942–1944

Box 5, Folder 3

Northrop, John H., 1941–1944

Box 5, Folder 4

O, 1941–1945

Box 5, Folder 5

Office Memorandum (2 folders), 1940–1945

Box 5, Folder 6

Box 5, Folder 7

P, 1941–1944

Box 5, Folder 8

Pending, 1942–1946

Box 5, Folder 9

Penetration Work, 1943–1944

Box 5, Folder 10

Q, 1942–1944

Box 5, Folder 11

R, 1942–1945

Box 5, Folder 12

Renshaw, Birdseye, 1943–1945

Box 5, Folder 13

Receipts
A reports, 1942–1944

Box 5, Folder 14

B reports (2 folders), 1941–1945

Box 6, Folder 1

Box 6, Folder 2

Bushnell Weekly News Letters, 1944–1945

Box 6, Folder 3

C reports, 1942–1945

Box 6, Folder 4

CMR Reports, 1943–1945

Box 6, Folder 5

Miscellaneous, 1942–1946

Box 6, Folder 6

Moore, Stanford, 1943–1944

Box 6, Folder 7

Progress Reports, 1942–1945

Box 7, Folder 1

Reports Returned to Washington, 1946

Box 7, Folder 2

Special Reports (2 folders), 1942–1945

Box 7, Folder 3

Box 7, Folder 4

Reports
9:5:1, 1942–1945

Box 7, Folder 5

Borrowed Log, 1944–1945

Box 7, Folder 6

CMR, 1943–1945

Box 7, Folder 7

Disposition of Extra Copies, 1942–1945

Box 7, Folder 8

Received, A–B–C, 1942–1945

Box 7, Folder 9

Received Log, 1943–1945

Box 7, Folder 10

Received, Other Progress Reports (3 folders), 1942–1945

Box 8, Folder 1

Box 8, Folder 2

Box 7, Folder 11

Returned to Washington, 1946

Box 8, Folder 3

S, 1941–1945

Box 8, Folder 4

S 1130 Compound, 1942–1943

Box 8, Folder 5

Samples: Received and Sent Out, 1942–1944

Box 8, Folder 6

Selective Service Deferment (2 folders), 1941–1945

Box 8, Folder 7

Box 8, Folder 8

Shriner, R. L., 1943

Box 8, Folder 9

Smith, Homer W.
I. Miscellaneous Correspondence, 1942–1945

Box 8, Folder 10

II. Invitations to Meetings, 1942

Box 9, Folder 1

III. Reports, 1942–1945

Box 9, Folder 2

IV. Samples Sent, 1942–1944

Box 9, Folder 3

Stahmann, Mark A.
General, 1942–1945

Box 9, Folder 4

C.W. Agents Program, 1943

Box 9, Folder 5

Stein, William H., 1942–1946

Box 9, Folder 6

Stewart, Irvin, 1942–1945

Box 9, Folder 7

Stock, C. Chester, 1942–1944

Box 9, Folder 8

T, 1942–1945

Box 9, Folder 9

Telephone Numbers, 1941, 1942

Box 9, Folder 10

Substituted Thioureases: Yoe and Overholser, undated

Box 9, Folder 11

Travel, 1942

Box 9, Folder 12

U, 1942–1943

Box 9, Folder 13

V, 1942–1944

Box 9, Folder 14

Vickery, H. B., 1942

Box 9, Folder 15

W, 1942–1944

Box 9, Folder 16

W Agent, 1943–1945

Box 9, Folder 17

X–Y–Z, 1942–1945

Box 9, Folder 18

Research, 1940–1946
British Reports, undated, 1941–1942

Box 10, Folder 1

Drafts and Corrections
KB–16 Report, undated

Box 10, Folder 2

N–Mustards Reports (8 folders), [194?]

Box 10, Folder 4

Box 10, Folder 5

Box 10, Folder 6

Box 10, Folder 7

Box 10, Folder 8

Box 10, Folder 9

Box 10, Folder 10

Box 10, Folder 3

Penetration Report, 1946

Box 10, Folder 11

S–Mustards Reports (7 folders), [194?]

Box 10, Folder 12

Box 10, Folder 13

Box 10, Folder 14

Box 10, Folder 15

Box 10, Folder 16

Box 10, Folder 17

Box 10, Folder 18

Formal Progress Reports
Chemical Reactions of Divinyl Sulfone, H Sulfone, and Divinyl Sulfoxide, 1944

Box 10, Folder 19

Chemical Reactions of the Nitrogen Mustards, 1944

Box 10, Folder 20

Chemical Reactions of Semi–H and H, 1944

Box 10, Folder 21

The Chemistry of Q, 1944

Box 10, Folder 22

The Chemistry of Sulfonium Salts Related to H, 1944

Box 10, Folder 23

N–Nitroso–N–Chloroethylcarbamic Acid Methyl Ester (TL 186), 1942

Box 10, Folder 24

The Penetration of Vesicant Vapors into Human Skin, 1945

Box 10, Folder 25

The Reactions of Amine Mustards with Chemical Constituents of Biological Systems, 1943

Box 10, Folder 26

The Reactions of DH, TL 146, TL 329, and TL 145 with Some Chemical Constituents of Biological Systems, 1943

Box 10, Folder 27

Some Reactions of Mustard Gas with Proteins and Proteolytic Enzymes, 1943

Box 10, Folder 28

Informal Progress Reports
December, 1941

Box 10, Folder 29

January – February, 1942

Box 10, Folder 30

March – April, 1942

Box 10, Folder 31

May – June, 1942

Box 10, Folder 32

July – August, 1942

Box 10, Folder 33

September – October, 1942

Box 10, Folder 34

November – December, 1942

Box 11, Folder 1

January – February, 1943

Box 11, Folder 2

March – April, 1943

Box 11, Folder 3

May – June, 1943

Box 11, Folder 4

July – August, 1943

Box 11, Folder 5

September – October, 1943

Box 11, Folder 6

November – December, 1943

Box 11, Folder 7

January – February, 1944

Box 11, Folder 8

March – April, 1944

Box 11, Folder 9

May – June, 1944

Box 11, Folder 10

July – August, 1944

Box 11, Folder 11

September – October, 1944

Box 11, Folder 12

November – December, 1944

Box 11, Folder 13

Laboratory Scientific and Volunteer Staff, 1934–1945

Box 11, Folder 14

Moore, Stanford
Laboratory Notes, 1942

Box 11, Folder 15

Literature Notes, 1942

Box 11, Folder 16

Report Summaries: Copy Instructions, 1942–1943

Box 11, Folder 17

Stein, William H.
Chapter 19. Chemical Reactions of the Sulfur and Nitrogen Mustards, undated, 1946

Box 11, Folder 18

Laboratory Notes, 1942

Box 11, Folder 19

Laboratory Notes, 1943–1944

Box 11, Folder 20

Literature Notes – 1130, 1942

Box 12, Folder 1

Literature Notes – H (Chemical), 1940–1945

Box 12, Folder 2

Literature Notes – H (Physiological), 1942–1944

Box 12, Folder 3

Literature Notes – H and Divinyl Sulfone, 1941–1944

Box 12, Folder 4

Literature Notes – MFA, undated, 1942–1944

Box 12, Folder 5

Literature Notes – N–Mustards, 1942–1944

Box 12, Folder 6

Literature Notes – Other Agents, undated, 1942–1944

Box 12, Folder 7

Literature Notes – Q and Related Compounds, undated, 1943

Box 12, Folder 8

Literature Notes – W Agent, undated, 1943

Box 12, Folder 9

Special Notes, 1942

Box 12, Folder 10

TL 110, undated, 1943

Box 12, Folder 11

Publications, 1911–1946
Collected Papers: Bibliography, [1946+]

Box 12, Folder 12

Reprint Index, 1911–1926

Box 12, Folder 13

Reprint Lists, [1926+, 1941+]

Box 12, Folder 14

Reprints
1–10, 1911–1921

Box 12, Folder 15

11–20, 1921–1922

Box 12, Folder 16

21–30, 1922–1923

Box 12, Folder 17

31–40, 1923–1924

Box 12, Folder 18

41–50, 1924–1925

Box 13, Folder 1

51–60, 1925

Box 13, Folder 2

61–70, 1925–1926

Box 13, Folder 3

71–80, 1926

Box 13, Folder 4

81–90, 1926–1927

Box 13, Folder 5

91–100, 1928

Box 13, Folder 6

101–110, 1928–1929

Box 13, Folder 7

111–120, 1929

Box 13, Folder 8

121–130, 1929–1930

Box 13, Folder 9

131–140, 1930

Box 13, Folder 10

141–150, 1930–1931

Box 13, Folder 11

151–160, 1931

Box 13, Folder 12

161–170, 1932

Box 13, Folder 13

171–180, 1932

Box 13, Folder 14

181–190, 1932–1933

Box 13, Folder 15

191–200, 1933–1934

Box 14, Folder 1

201–210, 1934

Box 14, Folder 2

211–220, 1934–1935

Box 14, Folder 3

221–230, 1936–1937

Box 14, Folder 4

231–240, 1937–1938

Box 14, Folder 5

241–250, 1937–1939

Box 14, Folder 6

251–260, 1939–1940

Box 14, Folder 7

261–270, 1940–1941

Box 14, Folder 8

271–280, 1941–1942

Box 14, Folder 9

281–290, 1942–1945

Box 14, Folder 10

Un–numbered, 1926–1946

Box 14, Folder 11

Declassifed Reports, 1940-1945
Literature II: A. G. Ogston and R. A. Peters, 1940-1943

Box 15, Folder 1

Literature III: E thru L, 1942-1944

Box 15, Folder 2

Literature IV: Miscellaneous, 1942-1943

Box 15, Folder 3

Literature V: A thru D, 1942-1944

Box 15, Folder 4

Literature VI: M thru P, 1942-1944

Box 15, Folder 5

Literature XII: Porton Reports, 1942-1944

Box 15, Folder 6

Literature XIII: Q thru Z, 1941-1944

Box 15, Folder 7

M, 1941–1944

Box 15, Folder 8

Research: British Notes, undated, 1941–1942

Box 15, Folder 9

Literature Notes – H (Chemical), 1940-1945

Box 15, Folder 10

Literature Notes – H (Physiological), 1942-1944

Box 15, Folder 11

Literature Notes – H and Divinyl Sulfone, 1941-1944

Box 15, Folder 12

Literature Notes – MFA, undated, 1942-1944

Box 15, Folder 13

Literature Notes – N–Mustards, 1942-1944

Box 15, Folder 14

Literature Notes – Other Agents, undated, 1942-1944

Box 15, Folder 15

Literature Notes – W Agent, undated, 1943

Box 15, Folder 16

Literature II: A. G. Ogston and R. A. Peters, 1940-1943
Literature III: E thru L, 1942-1944
Literature IV: Miscellaneous, 1942-1943
Literature V: A thru D, 1942-1944
Literature VI: M thru P, 1942-1944
Literature XII: Porton Reports, 1942-1944
Literature XIII: Q thru Z, 1941-1944
M, 1941–1944
Research: British Notes, undated, 1941–1942
Literature Notes – H (Chemical), 1940-1945
Literature Notes – H (Physiological), 1942-1944
Literature Notes – H and Divinyl Sulfone, 1941-1944
Literature Notes – MFA, undated, 1942-1944
Literature Notes – N–Mustards, 1942-1944
Literature Notes – Other Agents, undated, 1942-1944
Literature Notes – W Agent, undated, 1943
Lantern Slides, Undated
Lantern slides

Box 17

Lantern slides

Box 18

Lantern slides

Box 19